Dr. Ray L. Winstead
Professor of Biology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Scientific Method
Inductive - Deductive Logic
Characteristics of Life


The Scientific Method


1.  Review all available observations.

2.  Summarize the information.

3.  Form an hypothesis.

4.  Design and construct experiments to test the validity of the hypothesis.

5.  Perform the experiment.

6.  Repeat the experiment.

7.  Draw conclusions.


Inductive Logic


1.  Begins with observations: leads to hypothesis.

2.  Proceeds from the specific to the general.

3.  A method of discovery.

Deductive Logic


1.  Begins with the hypothesis: leads to predictions.

2.  Proceeds from the general to the specific.

3.  A method of verification.


Characteristics of Life


1.  Complex organization.

2.  Metabolism.

3.  Take energy from the environment.

4.  Reproduction.

5.  Responsiveness.

6.  Variation and Evolution.


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Dr. Ray L. Winstead
Direct e-mail Link: RWinstea@iup.edu