Abdominal Cavity - the lower body cavity below the diaphragm
containing such organs as the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas,
kidneys, large and small intestines, and reproductive organs.
Adrenal Gland - an endocrine gland that secretes
hormones that function in water regulation, regulation of metabolism, salt
balance, and in the stress response.†
Aortic Artery (Aorta) - a large blood vessel with
muscular, elastic walls that is connected directly to the heart and conducts
blood AWAY from the heart TO the rest of the body (excluding the lungs).
Artery - a blood vessel with muscular, elastic walls that
conducts blood AWAY from the heart.
Atrium - a chamber of the heart that receives venous
blood and passes it to a ventricle.
Colon - the longest part of the large intestine,
exclusive of the rectum.
Diaphragm - in the respiratory system, a dome-shaped
muscle forming the floor of the chest cavity that, when it contracts, pulls
itself downward, enlarging the chest cavity and causing air to be drawn into
Duodenum - the top portion of the small intestine
leaving the stomach.† Most of the
digestion that occurs in the digestive system occurs in the duodenum.
Endocrine Gland - an animalís organ system for
cell-to-cell communication, composed of hormones and the cells that secrete
them and receive them.
Esophagus - a muscular passageway that conducts food from
the pharynx to the stomach.
Gallbladder - a small sac, next to the liver, in
which the bile secreted by the liver is stored and concentrated.† Bile is released from the gallbladder to the
small intestine through the bile duct.
Heart - a muscular organ responsible for pumping blood
within the circulatory system throughout the body.
Kidneys - a pair of organs of the excretory system that
are located on either side of the abdominal cavity and filter blood,
removing wastes and regulating the composition and water content of the blood.
Large Intestine - the final section of the digestive
tract; consists of the colon and the rectum, where feces are
formed and stored.
Larynx - that portion of the air passage between the pharynx
and the trachea; contains the vocal cords.
Liver - an organ with varied functions, including bile
production, glycogen storage (glucose molecules bonded together), and the
detoxification of poisons.
Lungs - paired respiratory organ consisting of inflatable
chambers within the chest cavity in which gas exchange occurs.
Ovary - female
reproductive organ that produces egg cells and sex hormones.
Oviduct - the tube leading from the ovary to the uterus.
Pancreas - a combined exocrine and endocrine gland located
in the abdominal cavity next to the stomach.† The endocrine portion secretes the hormones
insulin and glucagon, which regulate glucose concentrations in the blood.† The exocrine portion secretes enzymes for
fat, carbohydrate, and protein digestion into the small intestine and
also neutralizes the acidic material coming from the stomach into the small
Pericardium - the membranous sac enclosing the heart.
Pharynx - a chamber that is located at the back of the throat
and is shared by the digestive and respiratory systems.
Pulmonary Artery - a blood vessel that conducts blood AWAY
from the heart TO the lungs.
Pyloric Sphincter - a circular muscle, located at the base
of the stomach, that regulates the passage of material into the small
Rectum - the terminal portion of the digestive tube, where
feces are stored until they can be eliminated.
Small Intestine - the portion of the digestive tract,
located between the stomach and large intestine, in which most
digestion and absorption of nutrients occur.
Spleen - an organ where lymphocytes (a type of white blood
cell important in the immune response) are produced and foreign particles and
aged red blood cells are removed from the blood.
Stomach - the muscular sac between the esophagus
and small intestine where food is stored and mechanically broken down and in
which protein digestion begins.
Testis - male
reproductive organ that produces sperm cells and sex hormones.
Thoracic Cavity - the chest cavity above the diaphragm
containing the heart and lungs.
Thymus Gland - an organ of the lymphatic system that is
located in the upper chest in front of the heart and that secretes thymosin,
which stimulates lymphocyte maturation; begins to degenerate at puberty and has
little function in the adult.
Thyroid Gland - an endocrine gland, located in
front of the larynx in the neck, that secretes the hormones thyroxine
(affecting metabolic rate) and calcitonin (regulating calcium ion concentration
in the blood).
Trachea - a rigid but flexible tube, supported by rings of
cartilage, that conducts air between the larynx and the bronchi (the tubes that
conduct air from the trachea to the lungs).
Umbilical Artery - an artery that is a part of the
umbilical cord (and in the fetal pig two umbilical arteries are on either side
of the urinary bladder.)
Urinary Bladder - a hollow, muscular chamber that collects
and stores the urine produced by the kidneys.
Uterus - in females, the part of the reproductive system
where the embryo develops during pregnancy.
Vein - a large-diameter, thin-walled blood vessel that
carries blood BACK to the heart.
Vena Cava - a large vein carrying blood from the body
directly into the right atrium of the heart.
Ventricle - the lower muscular chamber on each side of the
heart, which pumps blood out through the arteries.† The right ventricle sends blood to the lungs;
the left ventricle pumps blood to the rest of the body.
(definitions collated and adapted by Dr. R. Winstead for his General
Biology fetal pig anatomy lab from Biology: Life on Earth, Fifth
Edition 1999 by T. Audesirk and G. Audesirk)