Dr. Ray L. Winstead
Professor of Biology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Course Syllabus for BIOL 602 Biometry:
Outline of Lecture Topics

Link to Catalog Information, Objectives, Grading, Attendance

                              I. Introduction

        A. Beginning Concepts, e.g., the importance of statistics to biologists, the proper planning of a research project, the
                concept of the null hypothesis and its importance as a good approach to research. (Read chapters 1-2; p. 74-75
                in Z5*) (Read chapters 1-2; p. 79-80 in Z4*) (Read chapter 1 p. 1-7 in S&R*)

        B. First hands-on experience in practical applications (p. 1-2 in H*; chapter 2 p. 7-21 in H)

II. Data in Biology - Background - Descriptive Statistics

(Chapters 3-4 in Z5) (Chapters 3-4 in Z4) (Chapter 2 p. 8-31; Chapter 4 p. 39-59 in S&R)

III. Probability Distributions

        A. Introduction (Chapter 5 in Z5) (Chapter 5 in Z4) (p. 61-71 in S&R)

        B. The Normal Distribution (Chapter 6, note p. 126-128 in Z5)(Chapter 6, note p. 115-120 in Z4)
            (chapter 6 p. 98-125 in S&R)

IV. Estimation, Confidence Limits, Sample Size

        A. Estimation and Confidence Limits (p. 105-114, p. 122-123 in Z5) (p. 98-104, p. 110-111 in Z4)
            (p. 127-157 in S&R)

        B. Sample size for an estimate (p. 114-120 in Z5) (p. 105-109 in Z4)

V. Hypothesis Testing: Introductory Cases

    A. Introduction (chapter 4 p. 38-54 in H) (p. 157-169 in S&R)

    B. Testing a single population mean against a hypothetical (standard) value
            (p. 97-105 in Z5) (p. 91-98 in Z4) (p. 169-175 in S&R)
        1. Normally distributed population with population variance known
        2. Normally distributed population with population variance
        3. Population not normally distributed

    C. Testing the difference between two population means
        1. Normally distributed populations with population variances known
        2. Normally distributed populations with population variances unknown
            a. Variances assumed to be equal (p. 130-137 in Z5) (p. 122-127 in Z4)
                (p. 206-211 in H) (p. 223-229 in S&R)
            b. Variances assumed to be unequal
                (p. 136-142, note p. 142-151 in Z5) (p. 127-129, note p. 129-136 in Z4)
                (Also see section H. below)
        3. Populations not normally distributed

    D. Paired Comparisons (p. 179-182 in Z5) (p. 161-164 in Z4)
            (p. 212-215 in H) (p. 353-354 in S&R)

    E. Testing a single population proportion against a hypothetical value

    F. Testing the difference between two population proportions
        (p. 549-550, note p. 551-561 in Z5) (p. 555-557, note p. 558-568 in Z4)
        (note p. 741 in S&R)

    G. Testing a single population variance against a hypothetical value
        (p 121-122 in Z5) (p 112-114 in Z4) (p. 175-176 in S&R)

    H. Testing the difference between two population variances
         (p. 151-159 in Z5) (p. 136-141 in Z4) (p. 185-190 in S&R)

VI. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

    A. The logic of ANOVA (p. 189-190, 197-198 in Z5) (p. 177-178, 183 in Z4)
         (chapter 8 p. 179-200 in S&R)

    B. Fixed-effects model ANOVA and random-effects model ANOVA
        (p. 199-200, 262 in Z5) (p. 184-185, 243 in Z4) ( p. 128 in H) (p. 200-205 in S&R)

    C. One-Way ANOVA (p. 190-214 in Z5) (p. 178-195 in Z4) (chapter 7 p. 120-144 in H)
         (chapter 9 p. 207-223 in S&R)

    D. Specific Comparisons or Multiple Comparison Tests (p. 226-239 in Z5) (p. 208-222 in Z4)
         (p. 297-300, p. 313-327 in H) (chapter 9 p. 229-261 in S&R)

    E. Strength of Association Measures (chapter 11 p. 329-332, p. 334-337 in H)

    F. Randomized Block Design and Repeated-Measures Design
        (p. 270-275 in Z5) (p. 188-189, 250-260 in Z4)
        (p. 166-174, note p. 175-205 in H) (p. 342-356 in S&R)

    G. Factorial ANOVA: Two-Way ANOVA
         (p. 249-270, 274-277 in Z5) (p. 231-250, 260-263 in Z4)
         (p. 145-155 in H) (p. 321-342, p. 357-360 in S&R)

    H. Assumptions of ANOVA (p. 200-202 in Z5) (p. 185-188 in Z4) (p. 392-409 in S&R)

    I. Transformations (p. 286-295 in Z5) (p. 273-280 in Z4) (p. 409-422 in S&R)
        (Also see p. 261-264, p. 276-296 in H; p. 260-265 in S&R)

VII. Linear Regression

    A. Introduction (p. 328-333, 336-337, 341-342 in Z5) (p. 324-329, 332-333, 344 in Z4)
             (p.451-457 in S&R)

    B. Fitting the best line to the data (p. 333-336 in Z5) (p. 329-332 in Z4) (p. 457-466 in S&R)

    C. Evaluation of fitted regression line (p. 337-347, 349-361 in Z5) (p. 333-342, 345-358 in Z4)
        (p. 466-493 in S&R)

    D. Comparison of regression lines
        (p. 363-377; note p. 458-464 in Z5) (p. 360-375; note p. 452-459 in Z4)
        (p. 493-502, note p. 499-549 and p. 609-681 in S&R)

VIII. Correlation

            (p. 379-417 in Z5) (p. 377-410 in Z4) (p. 338-365 in H) (chapter 15 p. 561-601 in S&R)

IX. Nonparametric Tests: Analysis of Frequency Data
        (p. 162-163 in Z5) (chapter 5, p. 57-95, p. 264-273 in H)

    A. Goodness of fit test: Chi-square Test (p. 466-478 in Z5) (p. 461-473 in Z4)
        (p. 685-724 in S&R)

    B. Test of Independence or Association: Chi-square Test (p. 490-508 in Z5) (p. 486-505 in Z4)
        (p. 724-760, p. 778-787; note p. 760-778 in S&R)

X. Other Selected Nonparametric Statistical Tests: Analysis of Ordered Data
        (p. 96-119 in H) (p. 423-447 in S&R)

    A. Kruskal-Wallis Test (p. 214-218, 239-244 in Z5) (p. 196-200, 223-226 in Z4)
        (p. 107-111 in H) (p. 423-427 in S&R)

    B. Sign Test (Within-subjects) (p. 537-542 in Z5) (p. 538-542 in Z4) (p. 112-115 in H)
        (p. 444-445 in S&R)

    C. Friedman Test (Within-subjects) (p. 277-281 in Z5) (p. 263-268 in Z4) (p. 115-119 in H)

    D. Mann-Whitney U-Test (Rank-Sums Test) (p. 163-172 in Z5) (p. 146-155 in Z4)
        (p. 427-431 in S&R) (p. 102-107 in H)

    E. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Two-Sample Test (p. 481-488 in Z5) (p. 475-483 in Z4)
         (p. 434-439 in S&R)

    F. Wilcoxon's Paired-Sample Signed-Ranks Test (Within-subjects)
        (p. 183-188 in Z5) (p. 165-169 in Z4) (p. 440, 442-444 in S&R)


       * Z5 = Zar, Biostatistical Analysis, Fifth Edition, 2010

          Z4 = Zar, Biostatistical Analysis, Fourth Edition, 1999

H = Linton and Gallo, The Practical Statistician: simplified Handbook of Statistics, 1975

S&R = Sokal and Rohlf, Biometry, Third Edition, 1995

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Dr. Ray L. Winstead
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